quinta-feira, Setembro 18, 2014

"Holistic approach, Tourism": etapas da construção de uma ´entrada` de um Dicionário internacional de Turismo

Momento 1:
«The word holistic refers to something that emphasizes the importance of the whole and the interdependence of its parts. It has different applications in several disciplines and it can be related with the more commonly used concept of interdisciplinary, that is, the claim that most social and economic phenomena, namely, can not be fully understood or explained without undertaking an approach that goes far behind the aim of a single scientific discipline.
In social sciences, geographers and regional scientists were the ones that have appealed more to the use of this approach . Lew (2001) and Hall and Page (2006) are among those that have reinforced the importance of developing holistic and applied approaches to the research conducted on the tourism field.
The case of the tourism industry is the one of an activity that, besides being an economic and social phenomenon, has a spatial expression, all this given to it a particular complexity, so, where interdisciplinary approaches have special reasons to be followed. Furthermore, having in mind the way the industry interacts with and appeals to the contribution of many other activities present in the territory, tourism planning and management should take into account all its impacts .
Current research in tourism, mostly in the case of the tourism of experiences, has claimed the need of following holistic approaches, since previous studies have privileged the sense of vision instead of all the five senses that would allow tourists to get an intensive global experience of the destination components. This relates also with tourism destination competitiveness, as it arises from many factors, which include, among others, natural environment, climate, man-made attractions, tourism infra-structures and supporting facilities and, of course, geographical location.   
Previously, Murphy (1985) underlined the need of a more comprehensive and integrated approach to tourism planning at local level. This was highlighted taking into account the community approach, which relates with the idea that, if people have to live with an authority’s decisions, they must be called  to take part in the formulation of the policies and on their application. That is, if the planning process includes the community the risk of failing to retain its sense of place is largely minimized (Murphy 1985). The residents are an integral part of the attractiveness of a tourism destination.
The holistic approach has particular pertinence when dealing with planning and the design of policies. Sustainable tourism development can only succeed if the destination is able to supply a tourist product that can be preserved and renewed in its singularity and if the interests of the different stakeholders are considered.
According to the World Tourism Organization, sustainable tourism takes full account of its current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and host communities. The WTO uses this concept since the 1990’s.
Other authors, like Butler (1999), have claimed that the concept of sustainable development is itself holistic and multi-sectorial. It points to forms of tourism that are "green" or "alternative" to the mass or more conventional ones. But  the concept of sustainable tourism has been used more in theoretical than empirical terms due to the difficulty of its implementation.

Headwords: Community development; Tourism development; Tourism management; Tourism planning; Sustainable tourism.

References 
Butler, R.
1999 Sustainable tourism: a state-of-the-art review. Tourism Geographies 1(1):7-25.
Lew, A.A.
2001 Defining a geography of tourism. Tourism Geographies 3(1):105-114.
Murphy, P.
1985 Tourism. A community approach, vol. 4. London: Metheun Inc.
Hall, C.M. and S. Page
2006 The Geography of Tourism and Recreation: Environment, Place, and Space (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.»

Paula Cristina Remoaldo
University of Minho, Portugal
cris.remoaldo@gmail.com
José Cadima Ribeiro
University of MinhoPortugal
jcadima@eeg.uminho.pt

quarta-feira, Setembro 10, 2014

Call for Paper - 21.º Workshop da APDR - Estratégias, infra-estruturas e redes empreendedoras para o desenvolvimento regional

«APELO A CONTRIBUIÇÕES

Lisboa, 09 de setembro de 2014
A Associação Portuguesa para o Desenvolvimento Regional (APDR), a EMPREEND, a Universidade Aberta e Câmara Municipal de Oeiras realizarão no dia 27 de novembro  de 2014 o Workshop APDR - Estratégias, infra-estruturas e redes empreendedoras para o desenvolvimento regional.
A existência de  condições e de infra-estruturas de apoio à promoção do empreendedorismo e inovação a nível regional constituem actualmente um tópico de estudo interessante que se desagrega em diversas temáticas com interesse para os empreendedores, académicos, fazedores de politícas públicas entre outros.
O wokshop é dirigida a dois tipos de público:
·         Professores, investigadores e estudantes do ensino superior;
·         Decisores e planeadores de política em instituições públicas e privadas;
·         Empreendedores cujas actividades dependam ou provoquem externalidades significativas no ambiente económico local e regional;
·         Líderes de desenvolvimento regional.
O tema  do empreendedorismo tem vindo a ser estudado por diversos investigadores em todo o mundo.  Os contributos para o seu estudo são multidisciplinares e diversos, bem como, os seus tópicos de interesse.
O Workshop “Estratégias, infra-estruturas e redes empreendedoras para o desenvolvimento regional” pretende criar um espaço de reflexão e de discussão sobre os temas do empreendedorismo considerando o seu impacto no desenvolvimento dos territórios. Serão apresentadas várias abordagens ao tema, permitindo a discussão de artigos e de casos de estudo que propõem soluções inovadoras, estratégias sustentáveis e de promoção do desenvolvimento e competitividade dos territórios.
O formato do workshop pretende incentivar  a discussão e partilha de conhecimentos entre os participantes.
O formato dos trabalhos deverá ser feito de acordo com o formato de artigo ou de estudo de caso. A apresentação das comunicações poderá ser em português, castelhano ou inglês.
Em termos de oportunidades de publicação, todos os artigos e casos selecionados para apresentação serão publicados em livro de atas digital com ISSN. Haverá a possibilidade de uma seleção de artigos e estudos de caso escritos em inglês virem a ser publicados em livro internacional intitulado “Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurial Success and its Impact on Regional Development” Luisa Carvalho (eds), IGI, 2015. Pode ainda ser editado um livro com artigos e casos selecionados em inglês, português ou castelhano.
Subtemas
-          O papel das instituições de ensino superior na criação e disseminação do empreendedorismo e inovação (educação para o empreendedorismo; transferência de conhecimento e tecnologia; I&D;  incubadoras e estruturas de apoio ao conhecimento e criação de empresas; impacto regional do ensino superior; spinoffs universitárias);
-          Organismos regionais e locais  de fomento do empreendedorismo de base regional (Casos e projetos relacionados com programas de organismos regionais; agencias de desenvolvimento local e /ou regional; centros de investigação; redes de transferência de conhecimento; redes e capital social);
-          Infraestruturas de apoio ao empreendedorismo (Parques/Espaços Tecnológicos/Redes de Espaços Tecnológicos;  Centros Tecnológicos/Redes de Centros Tecnológicos; Incubadoras e outras infraestruturas de apoio);
-          Infraestruturas empresariais e redes de base local (Associações e/ou Federações Empresariais; projetos ligados à sociedade civil e à economia social);
-          Financiamento (business angels; capital de risco; programas de apoio e outros recursos de suporte);
-          Barreiras para o desenvolvimento da capacidade criativa, inovadora e empreendedora das empresas  casos aplicados a regiões e estudos demográficos empresariais (itens possíveis cultura empresarial; contexto empresarial; politicas públicas nacionais e regionais; infraestruturas, agentes e redes, qualificação entre outros);
-          Estratégias empreendedoras empresariais aplicadas a um setor, programa, empresa ou região.
-          Outros temas relacionados que se enquadrem nos temas dos eventos.
Datas relevantes:
  • Até 5 de outubro de 2014 - Recepção de resumos
  • Até 5 de novembro de 2014 - Recepção dos artigos
  • 15 de Novembro de 2014 – Inscrição na conferência para inclusão da comunicação no programa do Workshop
  • 27 de novembro de 2014 - Realização do Workshop
Formatação e estrutura
Caso
Cada caso deverá fazer referência à área de conhecimento a que corresponde e a sua estrutura deverá conter:
o   resumo (na língua do caso) e “abstract” (resumo em língua inglesa, se diferente);
o   palavras-chave (até cinco);
o   introdução
o   desenvolvimento (porventura, várias secções)
o   conclusão
o   referências bibliográficas
o   exercícios (enunciados e propostas de resolução)
Artigo
Cada artigo deverá fazer referência à área de conhecimento a que corresponde e a sua estrutura deverá conter:
o   resumo (na língua do caso) e “abstract” (resumo em língua inglesa, se diferente);
o   palavras-chave (até cinco);
o   introdução
o   Revisão de literatura
o   Estudo empírico
o   conclusão
o   referências bibliográficas
-          Em ambos os casos a lista de referências bibliográficas apenas pode conter a identificação de fontes efectivamente consultadas e explicitamente referidas no texto do caso ou artigo propriamente. Todas as fontes referidas nos exercícios do caso, tanto as que já constem da lista anterior como fontes adicionais, deverão constar de nova lista a inserir no final das resoluções do caso.
-          Secções, equações, figuras, quadros e outros objectos deverão ser numerados sequencialmente (numeração árabe).
-          Cada texto não deverá ultrapassar os 37.500 carateres, incluindo espaços, mas excluindo figuras, quadros, referências bibliográficas e exercícios (nos casos).
-          Os exercícios  dos casos (enunciado e resolução) e as referências bibliográficas não relevam para a extensão indicada no número - mas solicita-se concisão nos respetivos textos.
-          Os textos em português podem ser escritos segundo o antigo ou o novo acordo ortográfico mas nunca segundo os dois em simultâneo.
Todas as informações em: http://www.apdr.pt/evento_21/index.html»

(reprodução de mensagem que me caiu entretanto na caixa de correio eletrónico, proveniente da entidade identificada)

sexta-feira, Setembro 05, 2014

11th Annual International Conference on Tourism

«11th Annual International Conference on Tourism 
8-11 June 2015, Athens, Greece
Call for Papers and Participation
The Tourism Research Unit of the Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER) organizes its 11th Annual International Conference on Tourism, 8-11 June 2015, Athens, Greece. The conference website is:  http://www.atiner.com/tourism.htm.
The aim of the conference is to bring together scholars, researchers and students from all areas of Tourism. Areas of interest include (but are not confined to):
  • Tourism and Economic Development
  • Tourism Geography
  • National and Regional Tourism Policy
  • European Union's Tourism Policy
  • Mega Events (Olympics Games) and Tourism
  • Hotel Management and Marketing
  • Restaurant Management and Marketing
  • Tourism Economics
  • Tourism Marketing
  • Tourism Management
  • Tourism (Travel) Law
  • Travel Agents and Tour Operators
  • Sports Tourism
  • International Tourist Organizations (i.e. WTO, WTTC etc).
  • Tourism Research and Methodology
  • Tourism, Recreation and Leisure
  • Tourism Education
You may participate as panel organizer, presenter of one paper, chair a session or observer.  For programs of previous conferences and other information, please visit the conference website: http://www.atiner.com/tourism.htm. 
Fee structure information is available on www.atiner.com/fees.htm.
Special arrangements will be made with a local luxury hotel for a limited number of rooms at a special conference rate. In addition, a number of special events will be organized: A Greek night of entertainment with dinner, a special one-day cruise to selected Greek islands, an archaeological tour of Athens and a one-day visit to Delphi. Details of the social program are available at http://www.atiner.com/2015/SOC-TOU.htm.
Please submit an abstract (email only) to: atiner@atiner.com, using the abstract submission form available at http://www.atiner.com/2015/FORM-TOU.doc by the 10 November 2014 to:  Dr. Valia Kasimati, Head, Tourism Research Unit, ATINER. Abstracts should include the following: Title of Paper, Full Name (s), Affiliation, Current Position, an email address, and at least 3 keywords that best describe the subject of your submission. Decisions are reached within 4 weeks.
If your submission is accepted, you will receive information on registration deadlines and paper submission requirements. Should you wish to participate in the Conference without presenting a paper, for example, to chair a session, to evaluate papers which are to be included in the conference proceedings or books, to contribute to the editing of a book, or any other contribution, please send an email to Dr. Gregory T. Papanikos, President, ATINER & Honorary Professor, University of Stirling, UK (gregory.papanikos@stir.ac.uk).  
The Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER) was established in 1995 as an independent world association of Academics and Researchers. Its mission is to act as a forum where Academics and Researchers from all over the world can meet in Athens, in order to exchange ideas on their research, and to discuss future developments in their disciplines.
Currently, ATINER is upgrading its system of mailing list. Please let us know if you want to receive emails from us. Typically, we will not send you more than 5 email alerts per year.»

(reprodução de mensagem que me caiu entretanto na caixa de correio eletrónico, proveniente da entidade identificada)

sexta-feira, Agosto 22, 2014

"Call for Papers - Association of American Geographers - April 2015 - Chicago"

«Dear colleagues,

the Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers will be held from April 21st to April 25th, 2015, in Chicago, Illinois.

Each year the Recreation, Tourism, and Sport Specialty Group (AAG-RTS) sponsors special sessions. At the 2014 meeting in Tampa, Florida, there were over 100 presentations on tourism-related topics!

The deadline for submission of abstracts is November 5th, 2014. Please note that the AAG requires registration (and payment) before abstract submission.

Full details on the Annual Meeting are available on the AAG's website: http://goo.gl/rszNYJ and details on deadlines and instructions for submission can be found under the Call for Papers heading in the green banner.

You are also very welcome to organise a session, either by yourself or in collaboration with colleagues, and the AAG-RTS strongly encourages this.

If you would like to discuss organising a session, please feel free to email me directly to discuss how the AAG-RTS can support your efforts. If you do wish to organise a session, it is best to get in touch by mid-September so that the session can be communicated to potential attendees.

Looking forward to seeing many of you in eight months' time in the Windy City!

Regards,

Patrick.
-- 
Patrick Brouder
Senior Research Fellow
Brock University
University of Johannesburg
Mid Sweden University

Chair of the Recreation, Tourism, & Sport Specialty Group
Association of American Geographers

Consulting Editor
Tourism Geographies»

(reprodução de mensagem que me caiu entretanto na caixa de correio eletrónico, reenviada por Paula Cristina Remoaldo)

sexta-feira, Agosto 08, 2014

20th APDR Congress: proceedings

«PROCEEDINGS NOW AVAILABLE!
 
20th APDR Congress - Renaissance of the Regions of Southern Europe
 
University of Évora, Évora (Portugal), 10-11 July 2014
 
ISBN 978-989-8780-01-0
 
Download using the link:
 
Best regards,
 
Elisabete Martins»

(reprodução de mensagem que me caiu entretanto na caixa de correio eletrónico, proveniente da entidade identificada)

quinta-feira, Agosto 07, 2014

"Mega cultural events: does attendance affect residents` perceptions of city’s identity attributes?"

Abstract
Events are frequently used to attract tourists to a destination, but also to strength the identity of the residents with their city. This study is based upon the premise that a mega cultural event can, in a significant degree, change some of the attributes of city’s identity as they are perceived by their residents. Specifically, the objective of the study is to identify the attributes of the city and compare the differences between different groups of residents (attendees vs. non-attendees) before and after the event. Then, we focus our attention on the effects of the cultural mega event on the engaged participants, that is, the residents of the city that really have been involved and participated on the Guimarães ECOC 2012 (European Capital of Culture). Several significant findings are reported and their implications for event managers and public policy administrators presented, along with the limitations of the study.

Discussion and implications
The present study attempted to examine the impact of one particular mega event (the Guimarães ECOC 2012) on the perceived identity and image of the residents. Contrary to the initial expectations, the factor “heritage and environment” and their items had not increased with the event among the city’s residents (attendees and non-attendees). However, the mean values for the six items were relatively high (above 4 in a five point scale), suggesting that this dimension was relevant in the identity of the city, but reveals mixed feelings among residents about the consequences of the mega event for the preservation of historical buildings and the general quality of the environment. As the results were not statistically significant we could infer that perceptions about the identity of the city have not changed significantly, maintaining its relevancy among the other dimensions. This is consistent with the richness of the historical and cultural heritage of the city recognized by UNESCO in 2001. On the other hand, the perceptions about the tangible cultural heritage of the city has not changed significantly as the majority of the activities have been developed during the event were outside the public space and historic buildings (Guimarães 2012 Capital Europeia da Cultura, 2013, pp. 34-36). This is in line with the findings of Richards and Wilson (2004) who found that the image of Rotterdam (after ECOC 2001) as a cultural destination improved, but the physical and tangible elements of the city’s image continued to dominate. Iordanova-Krasteva, Wickens and Bakir (2010) reinforce this idea based on the evaluation of Linz ECOC 2009.
The “Arts” dimension reflects a critical aspect of Guimarães ECOC 2012, as one of the axes of the programming area was art, which for the purposes of the event, has been divided in cinema and audiovisual, performing arts, music, and art and architecture. Overall, this programming area accounted for half of the events (49.6%) approximately. The results show a consensus among all residents, even non-attendees, about the positive effects of Guimarães ECOC 2012 on the attitudes of their residents towards arts. This might be explained by the significant amount of events (music, cinema, theatre) that took place during the ECOC that increased the awareness of residents for arts. Previous research has indicated that the image of a city as a cultural destination could be improved by mega cultural events (Ritchie and Smith, 1991; Richards and Wilson, 2004; Freitas Santos et al., 2011; European Parliament, 2013; Liu, 2014).
In relation to the sports dimension, statistical significant differences were observed among attendees, while the relevance of sports for non-attendees was neglected. The present evidence suggests that the contribution of sports activities in shaping the city’s identity was limited to some segments of residents. As a matter of fact, sports activities were not chosen to be directly associated with the Guimarães ECOC 2012 by the organization due to some prejudice of cultural agents regarding sports. However, as noted by Ritchie and Smith (1991) regarding the Olympic Winter Games, the levels of awareness and the image of the city could be substantially improved if more activities have been promoted in this area. Nonetheless, the organization sponsored the main football team, but other sports received minor attention.
In relation to the dimension “performances”, during the Guimarães ECOC 2012, the cultural life of the city have been intensified by the implementation of almost 1.300 cultural events. Interestingly, significant positive differences were only observed among non-attendees. Hence, it seems that only the residents that not attended the event have changed the perception about this particular attribute of city’s identity.  A feasible explanation could be related with the huge number of events that took place during the mega event that confers dynamism to the cultural life of the city and could be easily felt, mostly by non-attendees. The findings of the study commissioned by the European Parliament (2013, p. 113) show that “impacts upon the host city’s existing cultural system and future plans for cultural activity are the most prolific areas of reported beneficial impact from ECOCs”.
With respect to local arts, only non-attendees showed statistical significant differences caused by the impact of the mega event, with an increase in the awareness of this dimension, particularly in the item craftwork, which is more related with open air trade fairs than indoor restricted exhibitions.
Regarding the legacy for the future of Guimarães, if local tourism authorities deserve to extend the positive effects of ECOC beyond 2012, the marketing strategy should be to maintain the level of cultural activities, mixing smaller events with high profile events as stated by Ritchie and Smith (1991), Jago et al. (2003), and the recommendations made to European Parliament (2013).
These results generate valuable implications for both event managers and public policy administrators. Firstly, the study provides an evaluation before and after the mega cultural event that reflects the impact on the main attributes of city’s identity. This provides managers and administrators with a clearer set of attributes to analyze the effects of cultural activities on future event performance. Therefore, it can be used as a guide to manage more efficiently the dimensions of the city’s identity and planning future cultural events. Secondly, in a fierce competition for tourists, investments and residents the creation of dynamic competitive advantages by cities must be based on soft attributes (quality of life, security, culture, urban lifestyle, etc.) rather than hard factors (infrastructures, transportation, etc.). The improvement of city’s soft attributes after the mega event offer policy makers an opportunity to competitively differentiate the city’s personality both domestically and internationally.
Thirdly, the results allow the policy makers and managers to align economic, cultural and tourism development with city’s identity elements, image and positioning. As many cities are beginning to compete on branding, there is a need to raise their profile, and create a differentiated identity and image. However, managers must be aware of the difficulties of the process, as city’s identity and image is the outcome of a diversity of regional perceptions that are often separate political entities.
Finally, the city’s identity and image is composed of multiple pieces that must be connected with the interests of different people.  The findings indicated how different types of residents (attendees and non-attendees) have been involved in the ECOC2012, providing guidance to an adequate planning of future events. A bottom-up approach is recommended to managers in order to collect useful information by previously ascertain whether different audiences expected to participate.
The evidence reported requires acknowledging the limitations of the current study that might inhibit the generalization of the results. The first limitation concerns the samples used in the study: they are non-probabilistic; differ in terms of size (non-proportionate); and the sampling unit and the unit about which the information was gathered may be different. However, no significant differences with regard to sampling characteristics (gender, age, education, income) exist, offering less concern about the representativity of the sample. Additionally, the results of a causal-comparative research should be interpreted with caution, as not only the mega event might caused the observed effects, but also different categories of extraneous variables (history, maturation, mortality) may have influenced the changes occurred between the two periods of time and the differences among groups of residents (Malhotra, 2007).

J. Freitas Santos 
Laurentina Vareiro
Paula Remoaldo 
J. Cadima Ribeiro

(reprodução de resumo e secção de discussão de resultados de comunicação apresentada na 2014 International Business Conference, que decorreu em San Francisco, EUA, entre 3 e 7 de Agosto)